Glossary & Information

Following are commonly used terms in the industrial LED lighting sector which Nemalux services.  Most terms found on our website and documentation can be found here.

Alternating current is a unit of electrical power used by an electrical device during its operation in which the flow of charge changes direction.  Fixtures come with a rating in VAC to indicate their power consumption.

The unit for measuring rate of flow of electrical current calculated by the following formula: Current (Amps) = Power (Watts) / Voltage (Volts).

A ballast is a series of resistors placed in line to limit the current to an electrical circuit.  These are primarily used with fluorescent and HID applications and is not required for our LED fixtures.

A diagram that precisely characterizes colour based on the spectral power distribution of the light emitted from a light source.

C1D1 is an area classification as is defined by CSA as follows:

  • Class I – A location made hazardous by the presence of flammable gases or vapors that may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture
  • Division 1 – A location where a classified hazard exists or is likely to exist under normal conditions

C1D2 is an area classification as is defined by CSA as follows:

  • Class I – A location made hazardous by the presence of flammable gases or vapors that may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture
  • Division 2 – A location where a classified hazard does not normally exist but is possible to appear under abnormal conditions

NEC defines a Class 2 circuit as:

  • The portion of the wiring system between the load side of a Class 2 power source and the connected equipment.

Class 2 power sources are inherently limited to 100VAC or VDC.

The calculated rendered colour of an object. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale), the more natural the colours appear. Natural outdoor light has a CRI of 100.  Our products have a range from approximately 70+ (standard) to high CRI options (90+).

All wave lengths perceived by human sight, usually measured in nanometers (nm).

Term used to describe the effect of heating an object until it glows incandescently. The emitted radiation, and apparent colour, changes proportional to the temperature; easily envisioned when considering hot metal in a forge that glows red, then orange, and then white as the temperature increases.

A LED driver is an electrical device which regulates the power to a LED or a string (or strings) of LEDs. LED drivers may offer dimming utilizing pulse width modulation circuits and may have more than one channel for separate control of different LEDs or LED arrays.

A description of light with a correlated colour temperature between 5000K and 7500K, usually perceived as slightly blue.

Direct current is a unit of electrical power used by an electrical device during its operation in which the flow of charge remains in the same direction and is common in solar lighting applications.  Fixtures come with a rating in VDC to indicate their power consumption.

Drive current is the amount of amperage being sent from the power supply through the LED array.

Electronics used to power illumination sources.

(Luminous Efficacy) – The light output of a light source divided by the total electrical power input to that source, expressed in lumens per watt (lm/W).

EPA is a coefficient used by the lighting industry to determine how much force a luminaire will apply to the mounting brackets or pole at a given wind velocity. This value is used in combination with a luminaire’s weight to determine the mounting requirements for a particular application.

Explosion proof (XP) equipment is used to prevent high voltage, high amperage equipment from producing a source of ignition. A heavy enclosure surrounds the spark producing components so that if vapors or gas leak in, and are ignited, the explosion is contained. Explosion Proof Lights are Class 1, Division 1 and 2 or Class 2, Division 1 and 2 rated by UL for the use in hazardous areas. See C1D1 and C1D2 definitions for further explanation.

A field serviceable fixture indicates that individual components can be ordered and replaced on site by a certified electrician under the local electrical code rather than returning the complete fixture for maintenance.

An NSF certified fixture indicates that the fixture meets NSF standards for equipment for public health protection.

NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) is the certification body

An area that does not require a hazardous location area classification rating.

In North America, hazardous locations have traditionally been defined by a combination of classes and divisions as follows:

Classes

  • Class I – A location made hazardous by the presence of flammable gases or vapors that may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce an explosive or ignitable mixture
  • Class II – A location made hazardous by the presence of combustible or electrically conductive dust
  • Class III – A location made hazardous by the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings in the air, but not likely to be in suspension in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures

Divisions

  • Division 1 – A location where a classified hazard exists or is likely to exist under normal conditions
  • Division 2 – A location where a classified hazard does not normally exist but is possible to appear under abnormal conditions

North American transition to the zone system

The U.S. and Canada have recently revised installation codes to recognize an international 3-Zone area classification system for equipment used in hazardous locations.

  • Zone 0 – An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is continuously present for a long period of time
  • Zone 1 – An area in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation
  • Zone 2 – An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere does not normally exist.

In Canada, all new installations must use the 3-Zone system. Existing installations may continue to use the 2-Division system or opt to re-classify using the 3-Zone system.

In the U.S., all installations (both new and existing) can either continue using the 2-Division system or re-classify their product using the 3-Zone system.

The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) is the recognized authority on light pollution and is the leading organization combating light pollution worldwide.

In order to receive the Fixture Seal of Approval (FSA) based on the IDA 2016 Certifications, fixtures must have a colour temperature of 3000K or less and fixed mounts to prevent the fixture from emitting light above the horizontal plane.

The IP Code, International Protection Marking, or Ingress Protection Marking, classifies and rates the degree of protection provided against intrusion (body parts such as hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures. It is published by the International Electro technical Commission (IEC).

A Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid-state semiconductor device which converts electrical energy directly into light. On its most basic level, the semiconductor is comprised of two regions. The p-region contains positive electrical charges while the n-region contains negative electrical charges. When voltage is applied and current begins to flow, the electrons move across the n region into the p region. The process of an electron moving through the p-n junction releases energy. The dispersion of this energy produces photons with visible wavelengths.

The international (SI) unit of luminous flux or quantity of light and equals the amount of light that is spread over a square foot of surface by one candle power when all parts of the surface are exactly one foot from the light source. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens. A 60-watt Soft White incandescent lamp provides 840 lumens.

The remaining flux percentage at the rated life of a light source.

A rating of efficiency for light sources.  Luminaire with a higher lumen per watt value is are more efficient.

A lighting fixture complete with installed lamps and other accessories.

The SI (International) unit of luminance, or luminous flux incident on a unit area, frequently defined as one lumen per square meter (lm/m2).

The beam spread of a flood light is referred to as a NEMA Pattern. The NEMA beam spread indicates the two edges where the light intensity photometric spreads horizontal and vertical to 10% of the maximum beam intensity. See below chart:

Asymmetrical beam spread
138° (H)   x   119° (V)
Horizontal    Vertical
= NEMA 7 x 6
NEMA Beam Spread Classifications
Beam Spread Degrees NEMA Type Beam Description
10° up to 18° 1 very narrow
18° up to 29° 2 narrow
29° up to 46° 3 medium narrow
46° up to 70° 4 medium
70° up to 100° 5 medium wide
100° up to 130° 6 wide
130° and up 7

very wide

Primary Optic:

The primary optic which serves to protect and shape the output of the small diode. Typical spatial distribution is used to describe the light coming from a LEDs primary optic. This means the shape or spread of the light from the center of the diode

A device that changes the direction of a ray of visible light, usually by reflection, such as a mirror, or refraction by a lens.

Secondary Optic:

If the light from the LEDs primary optic is still too broad for the application, a secondary optic (lenses, reflectors, TIR optics, etc.) can be used to collect and direct the light and magnify its intensity towards the target.

A LED driver referred to as a power supply is an electrical device which regulates the power to an LED or a string (or strings) of LEDs.  LED drivers may offer dimming by means of pulse width modulation circuits and may have more than one channel for separate control of different LEDs or LED arrays.

A programmable logic controller, PLC, or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of typically industrial electromechanical processes, such as control of light fixtures.

RGB (red, green, and blue) refers to a system for representing the colors to be used in LED lighting. Red, green, and blue can be combined in various proportions to obtain many colors in the visible spectrum. Levels of R, G, and B can each range from 0 to 100 percent of full intensity.

RGBW (red, green, blue, white) refers to a system for representing the colors to be used in LED lighting. Red, green, and blue can be combined in various proportions to obtain many colors in the visible spectrum. Levels of R, G, and B can each range from 0 to 100 percent of full intensity. With RBGW a superior white color can be achieved also.

A connecting device for a luminaire that slips over the end of a bracket arm and is secured by a clamp and/or screws. Adapts a yoke mount fixture to a pole mount fixture.

A description of the devices that do not contain moving parts or parts that can break, rupture, shatter, leak or contaminate the environment.

Durable brackets engineered to provide versatile mounting options. They allow optimal positioning of the light fixture to maximize the lighting effectiveness.

Controlling the operating temperature of the product through design. Examples include heat sinks and improved airflow.

The term used to describe the electrical potential difference between oppositely charged conductors. For example, there is a 1.5V potential between the top and bottom of a battery.

A description of light with a correlated colour temperature between 3000K and 3500K, usually perceived as slightly yellow.

The unit of electrical power used by an electrical device during its operation. Many lamps come with rating in watts to indicate their power consumption. A light source with a higher lumen per watt value is more efficient.

How can we help you?

We’d love to help with your industrial LED lighting solutions. Please feel free to contact our staff at any time.

Nemalux takes pride in designing and manufacturing industry leading industrial and hazardous location outdoor LED lighting solutions.

Nemalux Industrial | Staff
Sam Pogosian
CEO, Nemalux Inc.

Your Trusted Industrial Lighting and Hazardous Location Lighting LED Experts